what caused the satsuma rebellion

The game has only 48 counters. Although confined to the southern half… At 6 that morning, the 40 remaining warriors of the last traditional samurai army in Japanese history rose from their foxholes, drew their swords and charged into the guns of the 30,000-man-strong imperial army. Among the rebel weapons captured by the imperials at Nobeoka were numerous matchlock muskets of ancient vintage. Abandoning their sick and wounded, the remnants of his army climbed to the misty summit of Mount Enodake, where the imperial cordon was weakest. Born in Satsuma, the westernmost province on the island of Kyushu, in 1827, ‘Great Saigo,’ as his supporters called him, had backed the Meiji emperor in 1867. Chasing the ghost of Musashi in Kyushu. The deed was done, however, and he later congratulated his students. Word of the shigakkos‘ martial nature was greeted with considerable alarm in Tokyo. "Fearing a rebellion, the Meiji government sent a warship to Kagoshima to remove the weapons stockpiled at the Kagoshima arsenal on January 30, 1877. By 7 a.m., the Satsuma Rebellion was over. Oku’s small force, though discovered and attacked the next morning, was able to keep a hole open in the rebel lines long enough to revictual the garrison before passing through and linking up with the imperial army. Before returning to their own camp, they were given a letter from Yamagata to Saigo, which entreated him in the friendliest terms to cease the senseless slaughter and surrender. Although Satsuma Domain had been one of the key players in the Meiji Restoration and the Boshin War, and although many men from Satsuma had risen to influential positions in the new Meiji government, there was growing dissatisfaction with the direction the country was taking. A samurai from Chosu who had studied military science in Europe and headed the War Ministry in 1870, Yamagata was an old friend of Saigo’s. Saigō Takamori was labeled as a tragic hero by the people and on February 22, 1889, Emperor Meijipardoned Saigō posthumously. The government, however, refused to negotiate. A large number of imperial guardsmen had resigned with Saigo and later accompanied him to Kyushu. ThoughtCo uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience. It had the dimensions of a civil war, and was the last in a series of upheavals against the social and cultural changes driven forward by the Meiji government. Losing blood rapidly, he selected a suitable spot to die. The imperial forces linked up with the castle garrison the next day, ending 54 days of siege. When night came, they split their force in two, slipped around both flanks of the patrol and escaped again. Travel Aug 16, 2014. For his war chest, Saigo took only 25,000 yen, sufficient to buy supplies for a month. The Siege of Kumamoto Castle lasted until April 12, 1877. Many former samurai from the area joined Saigo's army, increasing his force to 20,000. The Satsuma samurai fought on with fierce determination; meanwhile, the defenders ran out of artillery shells. Fighting to preserve the old order, the samurai had gone down in bloody defeat to modern weapons wielded by the lower-class soldiers they despised. The series of lessons was planned and delivered to high ability Year 8 students in an international school and as such could be delivered to students who are one or two academic years above with minor tweaking. On January 30, 1877, a government ship arrived in Kagoshima and, without explanation, began removing munitions. The authenticity of that letter is doubtful, since its harsh tone was calculated to incite determined resistance. . Rebellions broke out in Satsuma, Hizen, and Tosa. Saigo and his army made a seven-day march south to Hitoyoshi, where they dug trenches and prepared for the imperial army to attack. When the attack finally came, the Satsuma forces withdrew, leaving small pockets of samurai to hit the larger army in guerrilla-style strikes. In July, the Emperor's army encircled Saigo's men, but the Satsuma army fought its way free with heavy casualties. One player is the Samurai. During the siege, more than 7,000 shells were fired, and the imperial forces had another 7,000 in ready reserve if needed. He led his samurai straight up the middle of Kyushu, planning to cross the straits and march on Tokyo. He hoped to raise the samurai of other domains along the way. Several of them were Satsuma-born Tokyo policemen, the type of men the government wanted for spying operations in Satsuma since they could speak the dialect, which even today is unintelligible to outsiders. The flashpoint for what became known as the Satsuma Rebellion came when imperial troops seized the military supplies from the arsenal at Kagoshima, to prevent them falling into the hands of any rebels. At the height of the battle, Saigo wrote a private letter to Prince Arisugawa, restating his reasons for going to Tokyo. A final attack was planned for April 14, but before it could be carried out, Saigo disengaged and his men took up new positions on high ground east of Kumamoto. Although reinforced, the imperial army had suffered so much from the fighting that it was forced to suspend operations for several weeks in order to regroup. Deprived of supplies from home, rebel forces lived on food purchased from the local peasants with paper promissory notes, bearing the stamp of the Satsuma commander. After surrounding the castle on the 22nd and keeping up small-arms fire all day, the rebels launched a series of ill-coordinated assaults on the walls after dark. He took Japan from being a backwards feudal society to being a strong empire under his full control. Furthermore, he made no attempt to contact any of the other han for support, and no troops were left on Kagoshima to secure his base against an attack. Suddenly, 2 million samurai found themselves ineligible for careers that had once been theirs alone. In addition, all students were required to take part in weapons training and instruction in tactics. Reorganizing his army into nine companies, he retreated to the east. As a result, there was considerable weaponry stockpiled at several armories scattered throughout the province. By February 21, he had 3,800 soldiers and 600 policemen at his disposal. The game uses two custom decks of cards, the Samurai Deck and the Imperial Deck. Determined not to let the rebels escape again, Yamagata issued orders for extra security precautions and then set about tightening the ring. Saigo was still trying to avoid war. Enodake’s rugged slopes, however, were not to Saigo’s liking as a final resting place. In the same year, the wearing of swords in public became optional, and in 1876 it became illegal. In the final battle, the Battle of Shiroyama, 30,000 imperial troops bore down upon Saigo and his few hundreds of surviving rebel samurai. Despite the overwhelming odds, the Imperial Army did not attack immediately upon arrival on September 8 but instead spent more than two weeks carefully preparing for its final assault. In the wee hours of the morning on September 24, the emperor's troops launched a three-hour-long artillery barrage, followed by a massed infantry assault that began at 6 am.Â. The only shelters were shallow holes scraped in the hillside. In August 1871, the daimyo lost their old domains — for which they were given compensatory pensions — and the old provinces were replaced with prefectures. The imperial government in Tokyo expected Saigo to come to the capital by sea or to dig in and defend Satsuma. Saigo, however, had no regard for the conscripted farm boys who made up the imperial army. -The rebellion lasted from January of 1877 to September of that same year. Japan’s future was ultimately resolved in 1868, however, when Emperor Mutsuhito stepped into power under the title of Meiji (‘enlightened peace’), abolished the shogunate, ratified a constitution and moved the imperial capital to Edo, which was renamed Tokyo. After several sharp clashes, both sides disengaged on the 26th. They were soon surrounded. Theme: The Satsuma Rebellion in Japan in 1877. After two days of fruitless attack, however, their ardor began to wane. Many able men who had fought and bled to return real power to the emperor in 1868 now spoke of the ‘good old days’ of samurai dominance. Yamagata, who had no idea in which direction Saigo had gone, sent out patrols in all directions. The police contingent was no mean addition to the garrison, for Japanese policemen were a paramilitary force recruited from the samurai class, comparable to the French gendarmerie or Italian carabinieri. Gathering a few pieces of artillery from the private schools and some food from the local people, they took possession of Shiroyama (‘castle mountain’). Rebellions broke out in Satsuma, Hizen, and Tosa. This influential clan was headed by the Shimazu family, which had been founded by Shimazu Tadahisa, During the days of the han, Satsuma had taken a lead in arms manufacture and importation. The imperial troops spent several days constructing an elaborate system of ditches, walls and obstacles to prevent another breakout. Moreover, the letter was not in Saigo’s handwriting. For more great articles be sure to subscribe to Military History magazine today! During the next three days, more than 1,000 students raided the naval yards and the Iso arsenal, stealing 84,000 rounds of ammunition. Dr. Kallie Szczepanski is a history teacher specializing in Asian history and culture. During the last days of the siege, Saigo lived in a hole measuring only 6 feet deep and 3 feet wide. At that time, the relief force was then only a few miles away. The map covers the whole Kyushu island and uses point to point system. By the time fighting resumed on March 3, both sides had been reinforced and numbered about 10,000 each. The Satsuma Rebellion proved that a conscript army of commoners could out-fight even a very determined band of samurai — provided they had overwhelming numbers, at any rate. After laying in a large store of food and demolishing several hundred houses around the castle to provide fields of fire, the general and his command settled down to wait for Saigo. Satsuma, the car the player builds and drives in My Summer Car This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Satsuma . Nor was popular support for the rebels limited to monetary matters. To aid in the air of legality that he was trying to project, Saigo wore his army uniform. The author was an British diplomat serving in Japan during the Meiji Restoration and one of his primary tasks was to stay abreast of and report on current events during his posting. Master these negotiation skills to succeed at work (and beyond) To prevent a recurrence of that sort of thing, the garrison was reinforced by an additional infantry brigade on May 4. How to engage your audience in any online presentation; Sept. 2, 2020. With their backs against the wall, outnumbered 7-to-1, large numbers of samurai surrendered, but for many others the very idea was anathema. They resorted to digging up unexploded Satsuma ordinance and refiring it. However, the imperial government gradually sent more than 45,000 reinforcements to relieve Kumamoto, finally driving the Satsuma army away with heavy casualties. This costly defeat put Saigo on the defensive for the remainder of the rebellion. On January 30, 1877, the central government launched a raid on the arms and ammunition storage areas in Kagoshima, without any prior warning to the Satsuma authorities. Tokyo intended to confiscate the weapons and take them to an imperial arsenal in Osaka. When an Imperial Navy landing party reached the arsenal at Somuta under cover of night, locals raised the alarm. Soon, more than 1,000 Satsuma samurai appeared and drove off the intruding sailors. The samurai then attacked imperial facilities around the province, seizing weapons and parading them through the streets of Kagoshima.Â. The war had cost the imperial forces more than 6,000 troops killed and 10,000 wounded, while the much smaller samurai army had lost 7,000 dead and 11,000 wounded. was a revolt of Satsuma ex-samurai against the Meiji government from January 29 to September 24, 1877, 9 years into the Meiji Era.It was the last, and the most serious, of a series of armed uprisings against the new government. In order to cut Saigo off from his base, an imperial force made up of three warships, bearing 500 policemen and several companies of infantry, arrived in Kagoshima on March 8. Saigo Takamori likely was killed in the initial barrage, although tradition holds that he was just gravely injured and committed seppuku. In either case, his retainer, Beppu Shinsuke, cut off his head to ensure that Saigo's death was honorable. The few surviving samurai launched a suicide charge into the teeth of the imperial army's Gatling guns, and were shot down. By 7 o' clock that morning, all of the Satsuma samurai lay dead. On February 13 and 14, the Satsuma domain's army of 12,900 organized itself into units. Each man was armed with a small firearm — either a rifle, a carbine, or a pistol — as well as 100 rounds of ammunition and, of course, his katana. Satsuma had no reserve of extra weapons and insufficient ammunition for an extended war. The artillery consisted of 28 5-pounders, two 16-pounders, and 30 mortars. The Satsuma Rebellion (Seinan Sensō 西南戦争, 'Southwestern War') was a revolt of the Satsuma clan samurai against the Imperial Japanese Army. Over his subordinates’ objections, Saigo decided to go to Tokyo and try to negotiate with the government. This book is a primary source of the Satsuma Rebellion. Samurai scaled the walls repeatedly, only to be cut down by small arms fire. These attacks on the ramparts continued for two days, until Saigo decided to settle in for a siege.Â. Whether intentionally or not, Saigo was forging the nucleus for a rebellion. On July 24, the imperial forces opened their main offensive against Saigo’s army in Miyakonojo. During the 1860s, Japan underwent a period of turmoil as conservative-minded daimyo and samurai attacked both the government and foreigners in an attempt to restore the country’s isolation. The Satsuma advance guard, 4,000 strong, set out on February 15, marching north. They were followed two days later by the rear guard and artillery unit, who left in the midst of a freak snowstorm. Satsuma daimyo Shimazu Hisamitsu did not acknowledge the departing army when the men stopped to bow at the gates of his castle. Few would return. The Modern Imperial Army destroyed the last of the Samurai. The rebels knew that Saigo was too much of a traditionalist to abandon his fellow samurai in a time of crisis, and would be morally obligated to take command. This rebellion was led by the restoration hero Saigō Takamori and lasted six months. Most of the fighting was now confined to sniping and isolated clashes between rival swordsmen. The imperial government’s conscript levies were hard-pressed to defeat Saigō, but in the end superior transport, modern communications, and better weapons assured victory for the government. Medical supplies consisted of one carpenter’s saw for amputations and a few rags for bandages. Tag: Satsuma Rebellion Tani Tateki – Kumamoto Castle defender during the Seinan War. In spite of the futility of his cause, however, Takamori Saigo’s integrity and strength of convictions left a lasting impression on both the people and the government he had opposed. The end of the Satsuma Rebellion also marked the end of the samurai era in Japan. Already a popular figure, after his death, Saigo Takamori was lionized by the Japanese people. He is popularly known as "The Last Samurai," and proved so beloved that Emperor Meiji felt compelled to issue him a posthumous pardon in 1889. On September 1, the remaining 500 rebels slipped into Kagoshima, having eluded government patrols in a heavy rain. The result transformed the government’s concerns about rebellion into a self-fulfilling prophesy. I feel confident in removing the romantic image of protecting the samurai and fighting corruption, as he was instrumental in modernizing Japan's military. Marching north, the army was hampered by the deepest snowfall Satsuma had seen in more than 50 years. From Kagoshima through the Siege of Kumamoto Castle by JAMEs H. BUCK HE SATSUMA REBELLION of 1877 was the final act of organized military resistance to the reforms of the Restoration Government. This rebellion was led by the restoration hero Saigō Takamori and lasted six months. However, he soon learned that 50 Tokyo police officers who were Satsuma natives had returned home with instructions to assassinate him in the case of an uprising. With that, Saigo threw his support behind those organizing for a rebellion. This civil war pitted a well-trained samurai army commanded by Saiga Takamoril and The government troops began arriving soon after, and once again the rebels were surrounded. The Satsuma Rebellion (西南戦争, Seinan Sensō (Southwestern War)?) Outraged by these high-handed tactics, 50 students attacked the Somuta arsenal and tried to carry off arms. General Tani, facing the supply problem, decided to dispatch a sortie in hopes of linking up with the relief force. Although deprived of his grand gesture, Saigo and fellow conservatives continued to agitate for war and a samurai-based army, but the peace party got the upper hand in the imperial councils. Units were forbidden to assist one another without express permission. The Satsuma Rebellion which took place in 1877 was the most famous, and the final major instance out of a series of shizoku rebellions led in the late 1870s by former samurai of southwestern Japan against the prospect of the Meiji government abolishing their elite status and the rice stipends which had traditionally been the samurai's chief or sole source of income. The modernization of the country meant the abolition of the privileged social status of the samurai class, and had undermined their financial position. Financially, crushing the Satsuma Rebellion cost the government greatly, forcing Japan off the gold standard and causing the government to print paper currency. The empire was on a full war footing and was determined to crush the rebellion. The Fiscal Reform The Satsuma Rebellion ultimately did not cause a financial collapse. They halted, facing the imperials all day. Written only a year or so after the event it does allow for contemporary opinion. 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